linux: 28 items found.

premature EOF errors in crontab file

How to fix this: premature EOF errors in crontab file, can't install

  1. Check for Missing Newline Characters:

    Make sure each line in your crontab file ends with a newline character. The absence of a newline character can cause premature EOF errors.

  2. Check for Spaces at the End of Lines:

    Trailing spaces at the end of lines can also cause premature EOF errors. Ensure that there are no extra spaces after the command or arguments on each line.

  3. Fix Incorrect Syntax:

    Carefully review the syntax of your crontab entries. Double-check the format and ensure that all fields (minute, hour, day, month, weekday, and command) are present and in the correct order.

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linux process stat meaning

main ps:

Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output specifiers (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of a process:

D    uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
I    Idle kernel thread
R    running or runnable (on run queue)
S    interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
T    stopped by job control signal
t    stopped by debugger during the tracing
W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
X    dead (should never be seen)
Z    defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its parent

For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional characters may be displayed:

<    high-priority (not nice to other users)
N    low-priority (nice to other users)
L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
s    is a session leader
l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
+    is in the foreground process group
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tcpdump host sundown

也可以指定ip,例如截获所有210.27.48.1 的主机收到的和发出的所有的数据包

tcpdump host 

打印helios 与 hot 或者与 ace 之间通信的数据包

tcpdump host helios and ( hot or ace )

截获主机210.27.48.1 和主机210.27.48.2 或210.27.48.3的通信

tcpdump host and ( or ) 

打印ace与任何其他主机之间通信的IP 数据包, 但不包括与helios之间的数据包.

tcpdump ip host ace and not helios


tcpdump ip host and !


tcpdump -i eth0 src host hostname


tcpdump -i eth0 dst host hostname
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Delete lines with sed command

Sed Command to Delete Lines: Sed command can be used to delete or remove specific lines which matches a given pattern or in a particular position in a file. Here we will see how to delete lines using sed command with various examples.

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是时间将CentOS8 升级为CentOS Stream了

CentOS8 的生命周期到2021年12月31日截止,CentOS7是到2024年6月30日。还有使用CentOS8的注意了,官方可能不再更新,需要将系统升级到CentOS Stream.


dnf swap centos-linux-repos centos-stream-repos
dnf distro-sync

附 CentOS Stream 下截地址:

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linux命令: awk




awk 是一种编程语言,用于在 linux/unix 下对文本和数据进行处理。数据可以来自标准输入(stdin)、一个或多个文件,或其它命令的输出。它支持用户自定义函数和动态正则表达式等先进功能,是 linux/unix 下的一个强大编程工具。它在命令行中使用,但更多是作为脚本来使用。awk 有很多内建的功能,比如数组、函数等,这是它和 C 语言的相同之处,灵活性是 awk 最大的优势。

awk 命令格式和选项


awk [options] 'script' var=value file(s)
awk [options] -f scriptfile var=value file(s)
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shell脚本中的if 参数-a至-z

[-a file] 如果file存在则为真 


[-b file] 如果file存在且是一个块特殊文件则为真 
[-c file] 如果file存在且是一个字特殊文件则为真 
[-d file] 如果file文件存在且是一个目录则为真 
if [ ! -d $lcd_path/$par_date ] 
[-e file] 如果file文件存在则为真 
[-f file] 如果file存在且是一个普通文件则为真 
[-g file] 如果file存在且已经设置了SGID则为真(SUID 是 Set User ID, SGID 是 Set Group ID的意思) 
[-h file] 如果file存在且是一个符号连接则为真 
[-k file] 如果file存在且已经设置粘制位则为真 
当一个目录被设置为"粘制位"(用chmod a+t),则该目录下的文件只能由 
#ls -dl /tmp 
drwxrwxrwt 4 root    root  ......... 
[-p file] 如果file存在且是一个名字管道(F如果O)则为真 
[-r file] 如果file存在且是可读的则为真 
[-s file] 如果file存在且大小不为0则为真 
[-t FD] 如果文件描述符FD打开且指向一个终端则为真 
[-u file] 如果file存在且设置了SUID(set userID)则为真 
[-w file] 如果file存在且是可写的则为真 
[-x file] 如果file存在且是可执行的则为真 
[-O file] 如果file存在且属有效用户ID则为真 
[-G file] 如果file存在且属有效用户组则为真 
[-L file] 如果file存在且是一个符号连接则为真 
[-N file] 如果file存在and has been mod如果ied since it was last read则为真 
[-S file] 如果file存在且是一个套接字则为真 
[file1 –nt file2] 如果file1 has been changed more recently than file2或者file1 exists and file2 does not则为真 
[file1 –ot file2] 如果file1比file2要老,或者file2存在且file1不存在则为真 
[file1 –ef file2] 如果file1和file2指向相同的设备和节点号则为真 
[-o optionname] 如果shell选项“optionname”开启则为真 
[-z string] “string”的长度为零则为真 
[-n string] or [string] “string”的长度为非零non-zero则为真 
[sting1==string2] 如果2个字符串相同。“=”may be used instead of “==”for strict posix compliance则为真 
[string1!=string2] 如果字符串不相等则为真 
[string1<string2] 如果“string1”sorts before“string2”lexicographically in the current locale则为真 
[arg1 OP arg2] “OP”is one of –eq,-ne,-lt,-le,-gt or –ge.These arithmetic binary oprators return true if “arg1”is equal to,not equal to,less than,less than or equal to,greater than,or greater than or equal to“agr2”,respectively.“arg1”and “agr2”are integers. 
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